He emigrated to the US in , at the age of In particular, he is closely associated with the concept of flow. He argues that flow-generating tasks are ones that people experience as rewarding for their own sake, as opposed to merely instrumental to some end. He further argues that fundamentally happy people are able to tap into their capacity for flow on a regular basis.
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He has described this experience in the following terms:. Being completely involved in an activity for its own sake. The ego falls away. Time flies. Every action, movement, and thought follows inevitably from the previous one, like playing jazz. In addition to personality psychology, his ideas have been influential in the fields of business management and education. Damon was born in Brockton, Massachusetts, in As a developmental psychologist, Damon has focused his research efforts particularly on the intellectual and social development of children, adolescents, and young adults, but also, to a lesser degree, on psychological development of persons throughout the lifespan.
His work has consisted principally of large-scale empirical studies, based on both original field research questionnaires and meta-studies of the developmental psychology literature.
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More specifically, Damon has been critical of changes in the conventional wisdom regarding child-rearing in our society over the past couple of generations. As he summarizes the point: Less is expected of the young, and in turn less is received. Damon is the author or co-author of about peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and the author, co-author, or editor of some 18 books in all. The recipient of many awards and honors, Damon has received grants supporting his research from such prestigious organizations as the John D.
Davidson was born in New York City in Davidson is famous for espousing Buddhist traditions of mindfulness and meditation as important empirical phenomena worthy of scientific investigation, as well as important techniques for achieving inner peace and spiritual growth. Davidson is a close friend of the 14th Dalai Lama and himself meditates regularly. Davidson has published many peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters.
He is also the author, co-author, or editor of more than a dozen books. Diener was born in Glendale, California, in All other life circumstances education, marital status, financial status, etc. However, Diener found that, all other factors being equal, extraverts still tend to be happier than introverts, leading to the hypothesis that the extraverted personality type is inherently more rewarding, fostering happiness that leads to gregarious behavior, not the other way around.
In short, people find happy people attractive. In other work, Diener has found that subjective well-being has measurable positive effects on health and longevity. On the contrary, Diener has found that many people do not bounce back from devastating life events, and never return to their previous level of subjective well-being. The good news is that since the so-called set-point for subjective well-being appears not to be immutable, therapeutic intervention may potentially be beneficial.
Finally, in recent years Diener has begun to explore some of the implications of his findings for politics and public policy, notably in a widely read paper he co-wrote with Martin Seligman see below , Beyond Money: Toward an Economy of Well-Being. Diener, who has a very high citation h-index score of , has published more than peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters.
He is also the author, co-author, or editor of some dozen books. Ekman was born in Washington, DC, in Following a one-year internship at the Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute, a teaching hospital which is part of the Department of Psychiatry of the University of California, San Francisco, Ekman obtained his PhD in clinical psychology from Adelphi University in He has developed a highly detailed atlas of emotions linked to more than 10, distinguishable facial expressions. His work has been widely influential, but also controversial. This claim flies in the face of the deeply entrenched relativism within the field of cultural anthropology.
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In another example, Ekman has done extensive work on the differences between spontaneous genuine and simulated deceptive emotions which may be detected in facial expressions. This work has given rise to various screening techniques some of which have been adopted by the Transportation Security Administration which Ekman claims provide us with the best lie detection technology available today. However, the studies Ekman has carried out to back up these claims have come under sustained criticism. Ekman has published some peer-reviewed journal articles or book chapters, and is the author, co-author, or editor of some 15 books.
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Fahrenberg was born in Berlin in Following undergraduate and graduate studies in psychology, sociology and philosophy in Freiburg, London, and Hamburg, Fahrenberg did his doctoral and post-doctoral work at the University of Freiburg, completing his Habilitationsschrift on the psychophysiological roots of personality there in Fahrenberg co-founded the Psychophysiology Research Group PRG at the University of Freiburg in , and in he became Chair of the Psychology Department, a position he held until his retirement in From this academic perch, Fahrenberg exerted a major influence on psychology throughout the German-speaking world and beyond.
At the PRG, he conducted pioneering research in a number of fields, including the neural correlates of personality, the link between personality and illness, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and life satisfaction. The PRG also developed innovative forms of physiological monitoring of subjects, known as ambulatory monitoring or ambulatory assessment, to assist in research on behavior in everyday situations.
In addition, the PRG also developed a number of important tests and personality scales, notably, the Freiburg Personality Inventory FPI , which is comparable to the American 16PF Questionnaire and is the most frequently used such assessment tool in German-speaking countries. Fahrenberg has co-authored some journal articles with other members of the PRG, as well as editing a number of textbooks. In his later years, Fahrenberg also published a number of articles on the history of psychology as a scientific discipline, the philosophy of science, and the conceptual interactions between psychology and philosophy.
Gardner was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, in After a stint at the London School of Economics, he returned to Harvard, where he obtained his PhD in developmental psychology in , working under the supervision of famed developmental psychologist Jerome Bruner and philosopher Nelson Goodman.
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He is currently the John H. Gardner is a developmental psychologist who has primarily focused on child development and the psychology of education. He is without a doubt best known for his theory of multiple intelligences —-the highly influential idea that the sort of intelligence measured by standardized IQ tests is only one among a variety of types of intelligence deployed by human beings in their interactions with the world around them especially the social world.
A number of observers have pointed out that there is very little empirical support for the theory. It must be said, too, that while many educators pay lip service to the theory, they have been slow putting it into practice in an everyday classroom setting. In later years, Gardner began exploring the implications of the theory of multiple intelligences for other areas, such as business school training. Gardner has close to peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters to his credit, not to mention several hundred op-ed pieces, essays, blog posts, and other articles aimed at a popular audience.
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He is also the author-, co-author, or editor of some 50 books. Among the most widely known and celebrated of living psychologists, he has won far too many awards, prizes, grants, fellowships, and honorary degrees to mention here. Gergen was born in Rochester, New York, in The idea behind social constructivism is that for human beings reality is neither given by the physical world nor conjured up by the individual mind, but rather constructed collectively by a given society or culture.
Moreover, he rejects the ideal of rationality usually associated with the social sciences, pointing out that such ideals themselves derive from particular historically and culturally bound structures.
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Gergen has published more than peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, as well as popular articles, op-eds pieces, and the like. He is also the author, co-author, or editor of almost 40 books. He has received numerous honorary degrees and has occupied visiting professorships at a multitude of universities all around the world. Gilbert was born in Gilbert works at the intersection of social psychology and cognitive psychology, with a focus on the way in which cognitive biases regarding the projected impact of individual choices on happiness affective forecasting may have wide-ranging societal and political implications.
Simply put, affective forecasting is the calculation we all make all the time, consciously or subconsciously, when faced with any decision—-generally speaking, we choose the option or the course of action that we believe will lead to the greatest increase in our overall happiness. The problem is that we are not very good at affective forecasting, which is beset by the kind of cognitive fallacies and illusions studied by several other psychologists on this list Dan Ariely, Daniel Kahneman.
For example, most subjects exaggerate the satisfaction they believe they will derive from possessing objects in comparison with having experiences vacations, entertainment and cultivating social ties with family and friends. He therefore urges us to redirect our energies towards ordinary, everyday experiences with family and friends, if we would be happy. It was there that she worked closely with developmental psychologists Erik Erikson and Lawrence Kohlberg.
Gilligan felt that girls and women attain moral maturity by a different path; more importantly, she argued that moral decision-making by women in general takes place in a different voice than that by men. In developing her ideas, she came to characterize male morality as primarily rule-based and focused on the individual as the primary bearer of rights and duties and as the locus of judgments of moral desert; whereas women, she held, reason morally from a care perspective that is primarily concerned with empathy and compassion, and focused on needs, relationships, and group interests.
From her right flank, as it were, some critics have claimed that her work lacks sufficient empirical support; while from her left flank, she has been charged with essentialism and giving aid and comfort to the patriarchy. Gilligan is the author or co-author or some peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and is the author, co-author, or editor of nine academic books, as well as a novel. She is the recipient of numerous awards, prizes, and honorary degrees.
Goleman was born in Stockton, California, in Later, Goleman worked primarily as a literary journalist and freelance writer. During the early part of his academic career, Goleman arranged for several extended stays in India and Sri Lanka, in pursuit of his interest in Asian traditions of meditation. The result was his first book, originally published in , on the different types of meditative techniques that he found there.
It was to the confluence of these dual streams of ancient meditative practice and modern neuroscience that he owed the breakthrough work that was soon to come. In this book, Goleman studies the emotions from biological, evolutionary, psychological, philosophical, and commonsense perspectives, showing the central role they play, not just in our affective life per se , but in all aspects of human cognition and action.
Gopnik was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in She is currently Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, with an affiliate appointment in the Philosophy Department. Gopnik has worked at the intersection of developmental psychology and cognitive science. In particular, she noted early in her career that the mathematical models she was attempting to develop to represent the way infants learn to interact successfully with the world around them were formally similar to Bayesian networks, an application of graph theory to the theory of probability that had been independently developed by philosophers of science to try to understand the way science works, especially in the form of non-deductive logical inference induction and inference to the best explanation.
This was a highly significant observation for at least two reasons: first, it provided a kind of empirical confirmation that Bayesian networks really do capture something important about scientific reasoning; and, second, it powerfully demonstrated that babies are already capable of employing far more sophisticated methods of discovery than one might have imagined absent such evidence. The wide-ranging book in which Gopnik reported these and many other findings to a popular audience, The Philosophical Baby , was a runaway bestseller. Gopnik is the author or co-author of more than peer-reviewed journal articles or book chapters, as well as the author, co-author, or editor of six books.
The recipient of numerous awards, grants, fellowships, lectureships, and honorary degrees, in Gopnik was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
nutritiony.com/780-mobile-location-for.php Haidt was born in New York City in One of his papers, The Emotional Dog and Its Rational Tail  —which argues that we mostly make moral judgments on an intuitive basis, reserving moral reasoning for the ex post facto justification of decisions already made—-has been cited more than times. Haidt first became widely known for his work in the field of positive psychology happiness research , especially for his book, The Happiness Hypothesis.
In this book, he draws heavily on work in cultural anthropology which shows that certain character traits are recognized as embodying wisdom the world over. Next, Haidt turned his attention to developing an empirically based typology of the moral emotions moral foundations theory. His five categories are: caring; fairness; group loyalty; respect for authority; and purity sanctity.
In his most recent book, The Righteous Mind , Haidt argues that those on the political left tend to honor only the first two of these moral principles, while those on the political right honor all five of them. He further argues that the only way to narrow the divide between left and right is for those on both sides to be more conscious of the moral categories the other side is operating with.