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Second Class Cities. Social Services. Soil and Water Conservation Districts. Country Reports states that "[t]he national population and family-planning law standardized the implementation of the government's birth-limitation policies, although enforcement varied significantly" US 27 Feb.
Local Laws and Government Policies Prohibiting Discrimination Based on Gender Identity in New York
An English translation of the Law is attached to this Response Attachment 2. The introduction of a national policy obliged, at least in principle, provincial legislatures to revise and amend local regulations to reflect national law. Australia 8 Mar. Country Reports explains that "[t]he law grants married couples the right to have one birth and allows couples to apply for permission to have a second child if they meet conditions stipulated in local and provincial regulations" US 27 Feb.
According to the Australian background paper,. Sub-provincial governments - prefectures, counties and townships - may also have their own local family planning regulations. Regulations at this level are likely to describe how provincial regulations are to be adapted to a particular locality. Freedom House states that "China's population controls mandate that couples must obtain government permission before giving birth" Freedom House However, according to Country Reports , "[t]he National Population and Family Planning Commission reported [in ] that all provinces eliminated the birth-approval requirement before a first child is conceived" US 27 Feb.
Nonetheless, the report adds that. This registration requirement could be used as a de facto permit system in some provinces, since some local governments continued to mandate abortion for single women who became pregnant. US 27 Feb.
Growing number of state laws limit local government control over food and nutrition
Other provinces -Fujian, Guizhou, Guangdong, Gansu, Jiangxi, Qinghai, Shanxi, and Shaanxi -require unspecified "remedial measures" to deal with unauthorized pregnancies. Sources report that a change in the national family planning policy was announced in late , stipulating that couples can have two children if either of the parents is an only child US 27 Feb.
The state news agency Xinhua reports that the December resolution of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress modifying the family planning regulations entrusts provincial congresses and their standing committees to make their own calls on implementation of the new policy Xinhua 28 Dec. According to Freedom House, "[Communist] party leaders said local authorities would gradually implement the reforms over the coming months" The article provides a list of the provincial regulations that have been changed and are available online in their original Chinese versions, with their date of implementation ibid.
Sources indicate that an amendment to the Regulations of Guangdong Province on Population and Family Planning came into force in March to bring the regulations in line with the changes at the national level, allowing a second child to a couple in which at least one of the parents is an only child US 6 Aug. According to the Law Library of Congress article, "[t]he exceptions to the 'one child' policy vary from province to province" US 6 Aug. The article states that.
The US CRS report adds that "[m]any jurisdictions allow for more than one child for ethnic minorities, rural couples in which the first child is a girl, couples in which both parents are only children, and in various other circumstances" US 15 Mar.
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The British newspaper The Guardian likewise states that "[w]hile most people in China are still only allowed to have one child, some groups, including ethnic minorities, disabled people, and couples in which both members are only children, are allowed to have two" The Guardian 15 Nov. Freedom House states that "[m]ost urban couples are limited to one child and rural residents to two" Freedom House Country Reports explains that "[t]he one-child limit [is] more strictly applied in urban areas," adding that, in ,. The remaining 5 percent were eligible to have more than two children. Xinhua also reports that one-child families account for Sources report that family planning policies are unevenly enforced throughout the country Australia 8 Mar.
According to Country Reports , authorities employ " education, propaganda, and economic incentives, as well as The US CRS report states that the national law authorizes penalties for those who breach the family planning policy, including "heavy fines and job-related sanctions, as well as the denial of public health and education benefits to offspring beyond the first child" US 15 Mar.
Chinese family planning officials use a variety of methods to enforce the regulations, including issuing fines and coercive methods like terminating the employment of parents, forced abortion, sterilisation, detention, beatings and land confiscation. US 10 Oct. Freedom House likewise reports that "[r]elatives of unsterilized women or couples with unapproved births are subject to high fines, job dismissal, reduced government benefits, and occasionally detention" Freedom House Chinese law leaves women unprotected against such abuses; for even though it prohibits officials from infringing upon citizens' rights and interests during population planning implementation, the law does not define what constitutes a citizen's right or interest, nor does it stipulate punishments for violations.